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Spanish Verbs (Verbos Españoles)
All Spanish verbs, in their most basic form (infinitive), end with "ar", "er" or "ir". Their endings change depending on the tense of the sentence and the noun doing the action. Read more on Spanish verb conjugations
Spanish verbs are either "regular" or "irregular". Unfortunately, there's no definite way of telling if a verb is regular or irregular. Your best bet is to practice and get use to reading Spanish verbs.
Common Spanish Regular Verbs (Común Verbos Regulares en Español)
hablar - to speak
comer - to run
vivir - to live
caminar - to walk
Common Spanish Irregular Verbs (Común Verbos Irregulares en Español)
beber - to drink
abrir - to open
gozar - to enjoy
saber - to know
sentir - to feel
estar - to be
Spanish Nouns (Sustantivo en Español)
volver - to return
oir - to hear
The Spanish noun is written in various ways depending on its gender and whether it's plural or singular. Similar to verbs, there is no definite way to determine a noun's gender. Keep practicing and you'll catch on soon enough.
Gender of Nouns (Género de Sustantivo)
Some Spanish nouns are masculine. While others are feminine you have to memorize which is which. All Spanish nouns are paired with Spanish articles according to the gender of the noun.
The Use of Spanish Articles with Nouns(El uso de Artículos en Español con el Sustantivo):
Masculine Singular Articles
Masculine Plural Articles
Feminine Singular Articles
Feminine Plural Articles
Spanish Article Exceptions (Artículos de Excepción Español)
el libro (the book)
la computadora (the computer)
un colchón (a mattress)
una bolsa (a bag)
los televisores (the TVs)
las mesas (the tables)
unos vasos (some cups)
unas cartas (some letters)
In some cases, it is difficult to determine the gender of a plural noun. When the gender of a plural noun is unclear, use los
Los jovenes van a las fiestas. - Teenagers go to parties.
Plural Form of Nouns (Forma Plural de los Sustantivos)
- It is unclear whether "jovenes" is refering to a group of all male teenagers, all female teenagers or both male and female teenagers.
If a noun ends with a vowel,
add an "s" at the end of it.
tapa + s >> tapas - tops
bebé + s >> bebés - babies
sapo + s >> sapos - toads
If a noun ends with a consonant,
add an "es" at the end of it.
flor + es >> flores - flowers
cajón + es >> cajónes - drawers
caridad + es >> caridades - charities
If a noun ends with a "z", replace the it with "ces".
Spanish Adjectives (Adjetivos Español)
cicatriz + ces >> cicatrices - scars
actriz + ces >> actrices - actresses
luz + ces >> luces - lights
Spanish adjectives appear either before or after the nouns they describe and are modified into their masculine or feminine form accordingly.
The ending of the adjective changes depending on the gender of the noun being described.
The adjective end with an "o" is added when the noun is masculine.
The adjective end with an "a" is added when the noun is feminine.
El sillón rojo - The red cushion
La silla roja - The red seat
Un cajon sucio - A dirty box
Una ropa sucia - Dirty cloth
La casa nueva - The new house
The ending of the adjective also changes depending on if the noun is singular or plural.
Lo zapato nuevo - The new shoes
An "s" is added when the noun is plural.
Los sillónes rojos - The red cushions
Las sillas rojas - The red seats
Unos cajones sucios - Some dirty boxes
Unas ropas sucias - Some dirty clothes
Los zapatos nuevos - The new shoes
Nationality adjectives that end with a consonant have a special ending.
Las casas nuevas - The new homes
If the nationality adjective ends with a consonant, add an "a" for singular nouns and "es" for plural nouns. Otherwise, the same rules apply.
El chico colombiano. - The Colombian boy.
La persona colombiana. - The Colombian person.
Los chicos colombianos. - The Colombian boys.
Las personas colombianas. - The Colombian people.
El chico español. - The Spanish boy.
For adjectives that end with an "e" and describe plural nouns, add an "s".
La persona española. - The Spanish person.
Los chicos españoles. - The Spanish boys.
Las personas españolas - The Spanish people.
El muchacho inteligente - The intelligent boy
La muchacha inteligente - The intelligent girl
Los muchachos inteligentes - The intelligent boys
For adjectives that end with a consonant and describe plural nouns, add an "es".
Las muchachas inteligentes - The intelligent girls
El muchacho popular - The popular boy
La muchacha popular - The popular girl
Los muchachos populares - The popular boys
For adjectives that end with "or", "án", "ón", or "ín", add an "a" for feminine singular nouns, an "es" for masculine plural nouns and an "as" for feminine plural nouns.
Las muchachas populares - The popular girls
El muchacho luchador - The hardworking boy
La muchacha luchadora - The hardworking girl
Los muchachos luchadores - The hardworking boys
Adjectives of quantity appear before the noun.
Las muchachas luchadoras - The hardworking girls
pocos libros - few books
pocas libras - few pounds
mucho tristeza - a lot of sadness
mucha felicidad - a lot of happiness