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Spanish Lesson: Spanish Alphabet & Spanish Pronunciation

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Pronunciation (Pronunciación)
Before you can pronounce the Spanish alphabet, you must learn some basic Spanish pronunciation rules first.

Spanish Vowel Sounds (Sonidos Vocales en Español)
Spanish vowel sounds are short.
The Spanish "a" is pronounced like the "o" in "dot".
The Spanish "e" is pronounced like the "e" in "elephant".
The Spanish "i" is pronounced like the "ee" in "bee".
The Spanish "o" is pronounced like the "o" in "roll".
The Spanish "u" is pronounced like the "o" in "do".

Spanish Consonant Sounds (Sonidos Consonantes en Español)
The Spanish "c" has two sounds: hard and soft.
The hard "c" is pronounced like the "c" in "candy".
The hard "c" is pronounced before "a", "o" and "u".
  • cantar - to sing
  • corona - crown
  • cumple - meets
The soft "c" is pronounced like the "c" in "city".
The soft "c" is pronounced before "e" and "i".
  • cinturon - belt
  • cerdo - pig
  • cinco - five

The Spanish "g" has two sounds: hard and soft.
The hard "g" is pronounced like the "g" in "goat".
The hard "g" is pronounced before "a", "o" and "u".
  • gato - cat
  • guerra - war
  • guitara - guitar
The soft "g" is pronounced like the "h" in "house".
The soft "g" is pronounced before "e" and "i".
  • gira - tour
  • gemelos - twins
  • gigante - giant

The Spanish "j" is pronounced like the "h" in "home".
  • jarro - pitcher
  • joven - young
  • jugo - juice

The Spanish "ñ" is pronounced like "ny" in "canyon".
Read ñ as "ny".
  • niña - girl
  • mañana - tomorrow
  • niño - boy

The Spanish "rr" is a vibrating or trilling sound.
If this is too hard to pronounce, pronounce it as the regular Spanish "r".
  • carro - car
  • perro - dog
  • zorro - fox

The Spanish "v" is pronounced like the "b" in "bed".
  • velo - veil
  • vez - time
  • vieja - old
The Spanish "d" has two sounds: hard and soft.
The hard "d" is pronounced like the "d" in "dog".
The hard "d" is pronounced at the beginning of a word, after "n" or "l".
  • diario - diary
  • mundo - world
  • falda - skirt
The soft "d" is pronounced like the "th" in "this". The soft "d" is pronounced in between vowels.
  • lado - side
  • pasado - past
  • nada - nothing

The Spanish "h" is completely silent.
  • hijo - child
  • hormiga - ant
  • hornillo- stove

The Spanish "ll" is pronounced like the "y" in "yarn".
  • llaves - keys
  • llorar - to cry
  • llamada - call

The Spanish "r" has two sounds: rolling and flat.
The rolling "r" is pronounced at the beginning of a word, end of a syllable or after "n", "s" or "l".
  • rojo - red
  • tornillo - screw
  • enrollo - enroll
The flat "r" is pronounced like the "dd" in "ladder".
The flat "r" is pronounced in between vowels.
  • pero - but
  • cero - zero
  • caro - expensive

The Spanish "t" is pronounced like the "t" in "stop".
The Spanish "t" is softer than the English "t".
  • cartera - purse
  • tambor - drum
  • te - tea

The Spanish "z" is pronounced like the "s" in "sofa".
  • zanahoria - carrots
  • manzana - apple
  • manzanilla - chamomile
Practice these words every day to better your Spanish pronunciation:
cerveza - beer
gordo - fat
genial - great
aburrido - bored
cordon - cord
almohada - pillow
mantequilla - butter
jefe - boss
verano - summer
dañino - harmful
The Spanish Alphabet (El Alfabeto Español)
Unlike English, Spanish letters can be written out. Here is the Spanish alphabet (30 letters) along with their written form:
A - "a"
B - "be"
C - "ce"
CH - "che"
D - "de"
E - "e"
F - "efe"
G - "ge"
H - "hache"
I - "i"
J - "jota"
K - "ca"
L - "ele"
LL - "elle"
M - "eme"
N - "ene"
Ñ - "eñe"
O - "o"
P - "pe"
Q - "cu"
R - "ere"
RR - "erre"
S - "ese"
T - "te"
U - "u"
V - "ve"
W - "doble ve"
X - "equis"
Y - "i griega"
Z - "zeta"
Spanish Accents (Acentos en Español)
When there is an acute accent over a vowel (á, é, í, ó, ú), it means to place emphasis on that syllable. As a result, the syllable with the accented vowel is more pronounced. Placing accents or ommiting accents can change the meanings of words.

soló - only
solo - alone

usted estás - you are
estas cosas - these things

caminó - walked
camino - path
habló - He spoke
hablo - I speak

papá - father
papa - potato

compró - He bought
compro - I buy

Spanish Lesson: Spanish Verbs, Nouns & Adjectives

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Spanish Verbs (Verbos Españoles)
All Spanish verbs, in their most basic form (infinitive), end with "ar", "er" or "ir". Their endings change depending on the tense of the sentence and the noun doing the action. Read more on Spanish verb conjugations.

Spanish verbs are either "regular" or "irregular". Unfortunately, there's no definite way of telling if a verb is regular or irregular. Your best bet is to practice and get use to reading Spanish verbs.

Common Spanish Regular Verbs (Común Verbos Regulares en Español)
hablar - to speak
comer - to run
vivir - to live
caminar - to walk
beber - to drink
abrir - to open
Common Spanish Irregular Verbs (Común Verbos Irregulares en Español)
gozar - to enjoy
saber - to know
sentir - to feel
estar - to be
volver - to return
oir - to hear
Spanish Nouns (Sustantivo en Español)
The Spanish noun is written in various ways depending on its gender and whether it's plural or singular. Similar to verbs, there is no definite way to determine a noun's gender. Keep practicing and you'll catch on soon enough.

Gender of Nouns (Género de Sustantivo)
Some Spanish nouns are masculine. While others are feminine you have to memorize which is which. All Spanish nouns are paired with Spanish articles according to the gender of the noun.
The Use of Spanish Articles with Nouns(El uso de Artículos en Español con el Sustantivo):
Masculine Singular Articles
  • el - the
  • un - a
Masculine Plural Articles
  • los - the
  • unos - some

Feminine Singular Articles
  • la - the
  • una - a
Feminine Plural Articles
  • las - the
  • unas - some
Examples (Ejemplos):
el libro (the book)
la computadora (the computer)
un colchón (a mattress)
una bolsa (a bag)
los televisores (the TVs)
las mesas (the tables)
unos vasos (some cups)
unas cartas (some letters)
Spanish Article Exceptions (Artículos de Excepción Español)
In some cases, it is difficult to determine the gender of a plural noun. When the gender of a plural noun is unclear, use los.

Example:
Los jovenes van a las fiestas. - Teenagers go to parties.
  • It is unclear whether "jovenes" is refering to a group of all male teenagers, all female teenagers or both male and female teenagers.

Plural Form of Nouns (Forma Plural de los Sustantivos)
If a noun ends with a vowel,
add an "s" at the end of it.

tapa + s >> tapas - tops
bebé + s >> bebés - babies
sapo + s >> sapos - toads
If a noun ends with a consonant,
add an "es" at the end of it.

flor + es >> flores - flowers
cajón + es >> cajónes - drawers
caridad + es >> caridades - charities
If a noun ends with a "z", replace the it with "ces".

cicatriz + ces >> cicatrices - scars
actriz + ces >> actrices - actresses
luz + ces >> luces - lights
Spanish Adjectives (Adjetivos Español)
Spanish adjectives appear either before or after the nouns they describe and are modified into their masculine or feminine form accordingly.

The ending of the adjective changes depending on the gender of the noun being described.
The adjective end with an "o" is added when the noun is masculine.
The adjective end with an "a" is added when the noun is feminine.
El sillón rojo - The red cushion
La silla roja - The red seat
Un cajon sucio - A dirty box
Una ropa sucia - Dirty cloth
La casa nueva - The new house
Lo zapato nuevo - The new shoes
The ending of the adjective also changes depending on if the noun is singular or plural.
An "s" is added when the noun is plural.
Los sillónes rojos - The red cushions
Las sillas rojas - The red seats
Unos cajones sucios - Some dirty boxes
Unas ropas sucias - Some dirty clothes
Los zapatos nuevos - The new shoes
Las casas nuevas - The new homes
Nationality adjectives that end with a consonant have a special ending.
If the nationality adjective ends with a consonant, add an "a" for singular nouns and "es" for plural nouns. Otherwise, the same rules apply.
El chico colombiano. - The Colombian boy.
La persona colombiana. - The Colombian person.

Los chicos colombianos. - The Colombian boys.
Las personas colombianas. - The Colombian people.
El chico español. - The Spanish boy.
La persona española. - The Spanish person.

Los chicos españoles. - The Spanish boys.
Las personas españolas - The Spanish people.
For adjectives that end with an "e" and describe plural nouns, add an "s".
El muchacho inteligente - The intelligent boy
La muchacha inteligente - The intelligent girl
Los muchachos inteligentes - The intelligent boys
Las muchachas inteligentes - The intelligent girls
For adjectives that end with a consonant and describe plural nouns, add an "es".
El muchacho popular - The popular boy
La muchacha popular - The popular girl
Los muchachos populares - The popular boys
Las muchachas populares - The popular girls
For adjectives that end with "or", "án", "ón", or "ín", add an "a" for feminine singular nouns, an "es" for masculine plural nouns and an "as" for feminine plural nouns.
El muchacho luchador - The hardworking boy
La muchacha luchadora - The hardworking girl
Los muchachos luchadores - The hardworking boys
Las muchachas luchadoras - The hardworking girls
Adjectives of quantity appear before the noun.
pocos libros - few books
pocas libras - few pounds
mucho tristeza - a lot of sadness
mucha felicidad - a lot of happiness

Spanish Lesson: Spanish Conjugations

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Spanish conjugations refers to verbs. Verbs signify pronouns and tense. For example, "hablo" is the conjugated verb form of "hablar" and signifies "Yo (I)" as the pronoun in present tense. In other words, pronouns are not absolutely necessary. You can use Conjugation.org as a reference to Spanish verb conjugations (You must know the Spanish infinitive form of the verb).

Spanish Pronouns
yo (I)
tú/usted (You)
él/ella (He/Her)
nosotros (Us/We)
vosotros (Yourselves)
ellos/ustedes (Them/They)
Point of View
First Person Singular
Second Person Singular
Third Person Singular
First Person Plural
Second Person Plural
Third Person Plural
There are 10 Spanish tenses:
Spanish Present Tense (EL tiempo Presente en Español)
Present Tense Verb Ending Chart
Pronoun
yo
tú/usted
él/ella
nosotros
vosotros
ellos/ustedes
-AR
o
as
a
amos
áis
an
-ER
o
es
e
emos
éis
en
-IR
o
es
e
imos
is
en
Habl(ar) (to speak)
yo hablo
tú/usted hablas
el/ella habla
nosotros hablamos
vosotros habláis
ellos/ustedes hablan
Com(er) (to eat)
yo como
tú/usted comes
el/ella come
nosotros comemos
vosotros coméis
ellos/ustedes comen
Viv(ir) (to live)
yo vivo
tu vives
el/ella vive
nosotros vivimos
vosotros vivis
ellos/ustedes viven
Spanish Past Imperfect Tense (EL tiempo Imperfacto Pasado en Español)
Past Imperfect Tense Verb Ending Chart
Pronoun
yo
tú/usted
él/ella
nosotros
vosotros
ellos/ustedes
-AR
aba
abas
aba
ábamos
abáis
aban
-ER
ía
ías
ía
íamos
íais
ían
-IR
ía
ías
ía
íamos
íais
ían
Acab(ar) (to end)
yo acababa
tu acababas
el/ella acababa
nosotros acabábamos
vosotros acababáis
ellos/ustedes acababan
Barr(er) (to sweep)
yo barría
tu barrías
el/ella barría
nosotros barríamos
vosotros barríais
ellos/ustedes barrían
Insist(ir) (to insist)
yo insistía
tu insistías
el/ella insistía
nosotros insistíamos
vosotros insistíais
ellos/ustedes insistían
Spanish Past Preterite Tense (EL tiempo Preterito Pasado en Español)
Past Preterite Tense Verb Ending Chart
Pronoun
yo
tú/usted
él/ella
nosotros
vosotros
ellos/ustedes
-AR
é
e
ó
amos
asteis
aron
-ER
í
iste
ó
imos
isteis
ieron
-IR
í
iste
ó
imos
isteis
ieron
Acept(ar) (to accept)
yo acepté
tu acepte
el/ella aceptó
nosotros aceptamos
vosotros aceptasteis
ellos/ustedes aceptaron
Deb(er) (to owe)
yo debí
tu debiste
el/ella debó
nosotros debimos
vosotros debisteis
ellos/ustedes debieron
Descubr(ir) (to discover)
yo descubrí
tu descubriste
el/ella descubró
nosotros descubrimos
vosotros descubristeis
ellos/ustedes descubrieron

Spanish Lesson: Beginning Spanish for Spanish Beginners

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A great way to learn Spanish fast is to practice speaking it out loud. Practice with your family and friends, at school, at work, at the bank or even at the post office. In this lesson, you will learn basic descriptions and conversations and you will be able to perform basic tasks such as cashing a check, mailing a letter and shopping (all in Spanish of course). If you're completely new at learning Spanish, you might want to start at the beginning.

Lesson Guide:
Ser and Estar
Spanish Number Sentences (Número de oraciones en Español)

Knowing Spanish numbers is beneficial for various occasions such as telling your age (if your brave enough), asking and telling the time, and understanding dates. Check out some common examples of using Spanish numbers below:

Time in Spanish - How to...
ask for the time
ask what time an event occurs
tell the time

¿Qué hora es?
¿A qué hora es la película?
Son las tres y quince.
Son las dos.
Son las tres y cinco.
Son las siete y cuarto.
Son las ocho y media.
Faltan quince para las diez.
Son las once en la manana.
Son las dos de la tarde.
Son las tres de la noche.
Es medianoche.
What time is it?
At what time is the movie?
It is three fifteen.
It is 2:00.
It is 3:05.
It is 7:15.
It is 8:30.
It is 15 minutes before ten.
It is one the morning.
It is two in the afternoon.
It is three the evening.
It's midnight.
Date in Spanish - How to...
ask for the date

say the date

¿Cuál es la fecha de hoy?
¿Qué día es hoy?
Hoy es lunes.
What is today's date?
What day is it?
Today is Monday.
Age in Spanish- How to...
ask how old is someone
say your age
¿Cuántos años tienes?
Tengo veinti-tres años.
How old are you?
I am 23 years old.
Describe Yourself
Mi nombre es Sabrina
Tengo 20 años.
Soy americano.
Vivo en la Florida.
Quiero ser maestro.
Tengo 3 hermanas.
Tengo un hermano mayor.
No tengo hermanos
Mi padre es medico.
Quiero presentarle a mi madre.
My name is Sabrina
I am 20 years old.
I am American.
I live in Florida.
I want to be a teacher.
I have 3 sisters
I have an older brother
I don't have any siblings.
My father is a doctor
This is my mother
School and College
Talking About School Subjects
¿Qué es tu mejor tema?
¿Qué es tu peor tema?
Soy bueno en la química.
Soy muy malo en la física.
Me gusta el arte.
No me gusta la historia.
¿Qué tema estudias?
¿Qué tema te gusta mas?
¿Qué tema te gusta menos?
Mi tema favorita es la matemática.

What is your best subject?
What is your worst subject?
I am good at Chemistry.
I am very bad at Physics.
I like Art.
I don't like History.
What subjects do you study?
What subject do you like the most?
What subject do you dislike the most?
My favorite subject is Mathematics.
Talking About School
¿Hay una piscina?
¿Le gusta tu uniforme escolar?
Describes tu uniforme escolar.
¿Cuánto tiempo duran tus lecciones?
¿Cuántos estudiantes hay en tu colegio?
Hay 800 estudiantes en mi colegío.

Is there a swimming pool?
Do you like your school uniform?
Describe your school uniform.
How long are your lessons?
How many students are there in your school?
There are 800 students in my school.
Eating Out
Going to the Bank
When You Are At The Bank
¿A cuál caja voy a cambiar mi dinero?
Quiero cambiar algunos cheques de viaje, por favor.
¿Qué es la tasa de cambio?
¿Adónde tengo que firmar?
¿A qué hora abre el banco?
¿A qué hora cierra el banco?

Which counter do I go to to change my money?
I want to change some travelers checks, please.
What is the exchange rate?
Where do I have to sign?
At what time does the bank open?
At what time does the bank close?
When You Are At The Post Office
El correos estara abierto mañana?
¿Cuánto cuesta para mandar una carta a el extranjero?
Un libro de estampillas, por favor.
¿Dónde está el buzón?
¿A qué hora es la proxima recogida?
Puedes pesar este paquete, por favor.

The post office will be open tomorrow?
How much does it cost to send a letter overseas?
One stamp book, please.
Where is the post office?
At what time is the next pick up?
Could you weight this package, please.
Going to the Post Office
Shopping and Finding a Shop
When you are shopping
¿Podemos echar un vistazo?
¿Puedes ayudarme?
Sólo estoy mirando, gracias.
¿Puedo probarmelo?
¿Qué talla es?
¿Qué tamaño tiene?
Es para un regalo.
Puedes envolver para regalo.
¿Cuánto cuesta?
Me lo llevo.
Eso es todo.
¿Lo tienes en un color diferente?
¿Aceptan cheques?
¿Cómo se llega a la farmacia?
¿Está cerca de aquí?
Está bast ante lejos.

Can we have a look around?
Could you help me?
I am just looking, thank you.
Can I try it on.
What size is it?
What size do you have?
It's for a gift.
Can you gift-wrap it?
How much is it?
I'll take it.
That is all.
Do you have it in a different color?
Do you accept checks?
How do you get to the pharmacy?
Is it close by here?
Is it really far?

Spanish Lesson: Intermediate Spanish for Practical Situations

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This lesson is coming soon.

Lesson Guide:
The future tense is used to tell what will happen, or what is planned or intended to happen. It is also used to express probability or ponder in the present tense. Events that will occur in the near future are expressed in the future tense. Regular verbs are conjugated by adding the endings in the chart below to the infinitive form.
Spanish Future Tense (EL tiempo Futuro en Español)
Future Tense Verb Ending Chart
Pronoun
yo
tú/usted
él/ella
nosotros
vosotros
ellos/ustedes
-AR, ER and IR
é
ás
á
emos
éis
án
Abus(ar) (to abuse)
yo abusaré
tú/usted abusarás
el/ella abusará
nosotros abusaremos
vosotros abusaréis
ellos/ustedes abusarán
Aprend(er) (to learn)
yo aprenderé
tú/usted aprenderás
el/ella aprenderá
nosotros aprenderemos
vosotros aprenderéis
ellos/ustedes aprenderán
Consum(ir) (to consume)
yo consumiré
tu consumirás
el/ella consumirá
nosotros consumiremos
vosotros consumiréis
ellos/ustedes consumirán
The conditional tense is used to express possibility or speculation. The conditional tense tell what would, could or possibly happen. Regular verbs are conjugated by adding the endings in the chart below to the infinitive form.
Spanish Conditional Tense (EL tiempo Condicional en Español)
Conditional Tense Verb Ending Chart
Pronoun
yo
tú/usted
él/ella
nosotros
vosotros
ellos/ustedes
-AR, ER and IR
ía
ías
ía
íamos
íais
ían
Adopt(ar) (to speak)
yo adoptaría
tú/usted adoptarías
el/ella adoptaría
nosotros adoptaríamos
vosotros adoptaríais
ellos/ustedes adoptarían
Absorb(er) (to eat)
yo absorbería
tú/usted absorberías
el/ella absorbería
nosotros absorberíamos
vosotros absorberíais
ellos/ustedes absorberían
Cumpl(ir) (to live)
yo cumpliría
tu cumplirías
el/ella cumpliría
nosotros cumpliríamos
vosotros cumpliríais
ellos/ustedes cumplirían
The indirect pronoun tells us where the direct object is going. Indirect Object Pronoun(EL Pronombre Objeto Indirecto)
Indirect Object Chart
Pronoun
me
you - informal
him, her or you - formal
us
you all - informal
them, you all - formal
-AR, ER and IR
me
te
le
nos
os
les
Spanish Expressions and Usage
Work and Career
Weather

Spanish Lesson: Advanced Spanish for Spanish Speakers

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This lesson is coming soon.

Lesson Guide:
Ser and Estar